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Theories about rumination

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Theories

Response styles theory

Response styles theory (RST) initially defined rumination as passively and repetitively focusing on one’s symptoms of depression and the possible causes and consequences of these symptoms.[5] As evidence for this definition, rumination has been implicated in the development, maintenance, and aggravation of both depressive symptoms[6][7] as well as episodes of major depression.[8] Recently, RST has expanded the definition of rumination beyond depression to include passive and repetitive focus on symptoms of distress in general. This change was made because rumination has been implicated in a host of disorders, not just depression.[9]

RST also contends that positive distraction is the healthy alternative to rumination, where focus is directed to positive stimuli instead of to distress.[10] However, the literature suggests that positive distraction may not be as potent a tool as once thought.[11]

Self-regulatory executive function model

The self-regulatory executive function (S-REF) model of affective dysfunction (the contents of which lie beyond the scope of this article) contends that rumination can be explained most precisely within a multilevel model of self-regulation.[11] Specifically, the S-REF model defines rumination as «repetitive thoughts generated by attempts to cope with self-discrepancy that are directed primarily toward processing the content of self-referent information and not toward immediate goal-directed action.»[12] Put more simply, when a person ruminates, he or she aims to answer questions such as:

  • How do I feel about this event?
  • How can I change my thoughts and feelings about the event?
  • How can I prevent disturbing thoughts and feelings in the future?

However, in answering these questions, ruminators tend to focus on their emotions (i.e., «self-referent information») as opposed to problem solving (i.e., «goal-directed action»).[12]

Metacognition is also an important part of the S-REF model and helps to explain the link between rumination and depression.[5] Specifically, those who hold positive metacognitive beliefs about the benefits of rumination (e.g., «I need to ruminate about the bad things that have happened in the past to make sense of them»)[13] are probably motivated to engage perseveratively in rumination.[14] Once engagement in rumination has occurred, individuals’ negative metacognitive beliefs about rumination are likely to be activated, seeing it as unpleasant (e.g., «Ruminating makes me physically ill»), uncontrollable (e.g., «Ruminating means I’m out of control»), and socially damaging.[14][15] These negative metacognitive beliefs then contribute to the development and maintenance of depression.[14]

Goal progress theory

Goal progress theory (GPT) seeks to explain rumination as a function of goal progress. Specifically, GPT views rumination as an example of the Zeigarnik Effect, which suggests that individuals are more likely to remember information from unfinished tasks than from finished tasks.[4][11] From this understanding, GPT defines rumination as «the tendency to think recurrently about important, higher order goals that have not yet been attained» or towards which sufficient progress has not been made.[11][16]

GPT predicts that individuals for whom goal-related information is highly accessible should be more likely to ruminate. Various studies have provided support for this prediction.[4]

πηγή: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rumination_%28psychology%29

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Written by dds2

Μαρτίου 9, 2015 στις 8:13 μμ

Αναρτήθηκε στις Uncategorized

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