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στοιχεία για το κάρβουνο

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πηγή:http://www.care2.com/causes/global-warming/blog/is-there-an-eco-friendly-replacement-for-coal/

I have good and bad news. First, I will tell you the bad news. Coal is nasty. Coal accounts of roughly 20 percent of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Just one 500 megawatt coal powered plant produces about three million tons a year of carbon dioxide. The U.S. produces almost two billion tons of carbon from coal powered plants, accounting for 27 percent of all its carbon dioxide emissions. The amount of emissions from coal in the U.S.  is expected to grow by a third by 2025.

Coal is cheap. It costs between $1 and $2 for one million British Thermal Units (MMBtu), and that is why it accounts for 50 percent of electricity generated in the U.S. An estimated 130 new coal powered plants “on the drawing boards,” according to the Pew Center on Global Climate Change. U.S.  coal reserves could last over 250 years at current consumption rates, but if technologies improved, they could last 500 years or more.

China is the world’s largest consumer of coal, with the U.S. in second place. It is estimated that 86 percent of incremental world coal demand between now and 2030 will come from China and India. China’s coal output grew from 2000’s 1.3 billion tons to 2005’s 2.23 billion tons in 2005. Coal power plants account for 80 percent of China’s electricity generation. In 2006, China  added 90 gigawatts of new coal powered plant capacity, equivalent to two large coal power plants a week.

India’s coal output grew from 2000’s 360 million tons in 2000 and 2005’s 460 million tons in 2005, a 5.5 percent a year increase. Sixty-eight percent of India’s carbon emissions are from coal.

Now, I will tell you the good news. A company called Brazil Pellet is investing $114 million to convert bagasse, a waste product from sugar cane, into pellets that ca be burned as fuel at coal power plants. The company successfully tested the technology in a pilot program. Production is planned for the third quarter of 2010 in the company’s plant in Sao Paulo, where over half of Brazil’s sugar can industry production occurs. By 2015, Brazil Pellet plans to make 520,000 tons of pellets a year, which would produce 2,420 gigawatts of energy.

“If you just let the bagasse decay it releases methane, and that’s 20 percent more dangerous to the ozone layer than carbon dioxide,’’ said Ivan Nunez, a banker with the IDB arranging the financing for Brazilian Pellet. “So, burning it instead gives you carbon credits.’’

“The nice thing about bagasse is that it’s just garbage,’’ said Gloria Jacobovitz, an adviser to Brazilian Pellet. “It’s different from other biomass because it’s a waste product rather than a plant grown specifically to create energy.’’

Read more: coal, bagasse, sugar cane waste

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Written by dds2

Νοέμβριος 27, 2009 στις 4:49 μμ

Αναρτήθηκε στις Uncategorized

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